January 21, 2022

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According to a Harvard expert, what happens to our immune system when we receive a booster dose?

The United States FDA recently approved approval for a booster dose of Pfizer and Modern Corona virus vaccines for all adults 18 years of age and older, which has already been approved at the state and local levels (REUTERS).

Questions about Covit-19 vaccine boosters Has recently dominated scientific discussions, news headlines and casual conversations, however The practice of providing regular “updates” to our immune system is not new. In an interview Harvard Gazette, Jonathan Abraham, Assistant Professor of Microbiology Flavotnik Institute at Harvard Medical School And specialist in infectious diseases Hospital Brigham and Women, Talked about Science and History of Vaccine Boosters.

“Studies show that After vaccination against the corona virus, protection against SARS-CoV-2 and the ability to prevent infection with new strains are reduced over time. Data from clinical trials revealed it Booster dose of Pfizer-BioNTech Govit-19 vaccine Effective in defending against Govt-19 A booster dose is more effective than the main vaccination schedule ”, Warning Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

But what is a booster shot and how does it work? “A booster shot It aims to increase the level of the immune response, after which it naturally decreases. A booster It is deceiving to think that the immune system sees a pathogen again, Thus antibody-producing cells and other immune cells are activated. Can increase the quantity and quality of antibodies produced. Through a process called Through the maturation of antibody affinity, our immune systems learn to do a better job of recognizing a pathogen and developing antibodies that bind more closely to their target. For SARS-CoV-2 virus, for example, contact-matured antibodies may be more effective in recognizing mutations with multiple mutations, ”the expert said.

“Increase the immune response level after a booster shot naturally decreases” (REUTERS)

After receiving the complete schedule of vaccinations COVID-19, the third use of the vaccine can occur for a variety of reasons. That is why they are called Extra or booster dose And The reasons for promoting its use are varied.

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A booster shot is the same Some patients have a specific disease or their immune system is weakened. Is it also called an overdose or an overdose? The answer is no. Each of these vaccines is given at different times than the second dose, and not just for any patient.

Many are invited to the third dose within four to six weeks of the second dose. This is where the confusion with the third dose used six months after the second dose develops. “The confusion arises because the third dose should be given 6 months after the second dose for all vaccines and 5 months after the synoform vaccine.”, Explained the renowned pediatrician of Argentina Marta Cohen, In connection with the third dose.

There is another dose than the extra dose That World Health Organization (WHO), The British government and many countries use it and recommend it to countries with severe immune deficiencies. This dose, we can call this extra dose It is part of the primary vaccination plan and is recommended for use at 8 weeks, i.e. a few months after the second dose. But not for everyone. This For Specific cases These patients are being analyzed by the general practitioner ”, Explained Cohen.

The The extra dose helps to boost the immune system of people with immunodeficiency or those with naturally occurring immune changes associated with aging (immunosuppression). It helps to reduce the impact of deaths due to Covit-19 in people over 50 and before. Variation Delta In social broadcasting. Following international recommendations and some medical studies conducted in the country, The The National Immunization Commission (CON) advised the Ministry of National Health to decide on adding a single dose to the same or integrated programs in those two groups. Follows certain parameters.

After receiving a complete list of vaccines against COVID-19, a third use of the vaccine may occur for a variety of reasons.  That is why they are called extra or booster doses and the reasons for their use are different (Getty Images)
After receiving a complete list of vaccines against COVID-19, a third use of the vaccine may occur for a variety of reasons. That is why they are called extra or booster dose and the reasons for their use are different (Getty Images)

Consulted Reinforcement is needed from time to time In the future, Abraham “Vaccines are still very effective in preventing serious infections and deaths, but They are not 100% effective in stopping the spread of the virus. Vaccinated individuals are more likely to be infected with the virus and have a breakthrough infection, especially in areas with high infection rates due to low absorption of the vaccine. With this in mind, Because of the very pervasive variations, I guess we will need occasional incentives over the next several years. At that point, it would be prudent to use a renewed vaccine strain because it is practically extinct and it is unlikely that we will ever see the original vaccine strain again. “

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However, according to experts, This will not be the first vaccine Occasional reinforcements are required. “Recommended for kids and twins Five doses of the vaccineA DTaP And A Tdap booster shot The best way to protect against Dosferina. We usually need boosters with Td or Tdap component every 10 years to protect the immune system. For some pathogens, having pre-existing and prepared immune responses, for example, in the form of measurable antibody levels, is critical to performance. Then, As antibody levels naturally decrease over time, a stimulus is needed ”, Comprehensive.

Ómicron contains more than 30 mutations in protein S, and scientists are investigating whether it is highly contagious and can easily prevent immune defenses.  (REUTERS / Tado Ruvik)
Ómicron contains more than 30 mutations in protein S, and scientists are investigating whether it is highly contagious and can easily prevent immune defenses. (REUTERS / Tado Ruvik)

Also continued: “For other pathogens, What Hepatitis B virus, Completing a series of three immunizations will provide lifelong protection Measurable antibody levels are not usually monitored. However, if the risk of infection is high, for example, health workers, It may be important to check and encourage antibody levels at least once If antibodies are found to be low. Then, Promoting or not promoting is multifaceted and ultimately based on research and experience ”.

for now, The same SARS-CoV-2 peak protein antigen is used for vaccines and boosters. However, Over time, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein shape is likely to change or be modified to the extent required to boost with renewed strain antigen. To prepare the immune system to identify the mutated virus. “This situation is very similar with seasonal influenza virus vaccines each year, although we think influenza vaccines are more like strain vaccines than occasional boosters,” he concluded. Jonathan Abraham, Harvard Medical School And specialist in infectious diseases Hospital Brigham and Women.

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